Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Hofmann

Phone  +49 (0) 221 470 5995
Fax  +49 (0) 221 470 7200
E-mail  wilhelm.hofmann(at)uni-koeln.de
Address Richard-Strauss-Str. 2, 50931 Köln, Germany
Room  4.B05 (4th floor)
Office hours  by appointment

Research interests

Self-regulation and self-control
Desire, temptation
Everyday Morality
Executive functioning
Implicit social cognition
Health behavior decision-making
Behavioral economics
Self-knowledge
Ecological momentary assessment, experience-sampling

Awards and distinctions

  • William Stern Award, Personality Psychology Division of the German Psychological Society (DGPs), 2009
  • Best Dissertation Award, University of Landau, 2007
  • Best Paper Award, German Association of Media Psychology, 2007
  • Best Publication Award in the European Journal of Personality (at Ph.D level), Wiley, 2007

Key publications

  • Hofmann, W., Wisneski, D. C., Brandt, M. J., & Skitka, L. J. (2014). Morality in everyday life. Science, 345, 1340-1343. doi:10.1126/science.1251560
  • Hofmann, W., Baumeister, R. F., Förster, G., & Vohs, K. D. (2012). Everyday temptations: An experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1318–1335. doi:10.1037/a0026545
  • Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 174–180. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Strack, F. (2009). Impulse and self-control from a dual-systems perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 162–176. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01116.x
  • Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369–1385. doi:10.1177/0146167205275613

All publications

  • Field, M., Werthmann, J., Franken, I., Hofmann, W., Hogarth, L., & Roefs, A. (in press). The role of attentional bias in obesity and addiction. Health Psychology.
  • Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (in press). State mindfulness, self-regulation, and emotional experience in everyday life. Motivation Science.
  • Laurin, K., Fitzsimons, G. M., Finkel, E. J., Carswell, K. L., Hofmann, W., Lambert, N. M., … vanDellen, M. R. (in press). Power and the pursuit of a partner’s goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  • Lopez, R. B., Milyavskaya, M., Hofmann, W., & Heatherton, T. F. (in press). Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students. Appetite. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2016.03.027
  • Mead, N. L., Patrick, V., Gunadi, M., & Hofmann, W. (in press). Simple pleasures, small annoyances, and goal progress in daily life. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research.
  • Reinecke, L., & Hofmann, W. (in press). Slacking off or winding down? An experience sampling study on the drivers and consequences of media use for recovery versus procrastination. Human Communication Research.
  • Righetti, F., Gere, J., Hofmann, W., Vissermann, M. L., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (in press). The burden of empathy: Partners' response to divergence of interests in daily life. Emotion. doi:10.1037/emo0000163
  • Schier, U., Ockenfels, A., & Hofmann, W. (in press). Moral values and increasing stakes in a dictator game. Journal of Economic Psychology.
  • van Deursen, D. S., Salemink, E., Boendermaker, W. J., Pronk, T., Hofmann, W., & Wiers, R. W. (in press). Executive functions and motivation as moderators of the relationship between automatic associations and alcohol use in problem drinkers seeking online help. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. doi:10.1111/acer.12822
  • Fishbach, A., & Hofmann, W. (2015). Nudging self-control: A smartphone intervention of temptation anticipation and goal resolution improves everyday goal progress. Motivation Science, 1, 137–150. doi:10.1037/mot0000022
  • Ghoniem, A., & Hofmann, W. (2015). Yielding to temptation: How and why some people are better at controlling themselves. In-Mind Magazine, 8.
  • Hofmann, W., Finkel, E. J., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2015). Close relationships and self-regulation: How relationship satisfaction facilitates momentary goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109, 434–452. doi:10.1037/pspi0000020
  • Hofmann, W., & Nordgren, L. F. (2015). The psychology of desire. New York, NY: Guilford.
  • Hofmann, W., & Patel, P. V. (2015). SurveySignal: A convenient solution for experience sampling research using participants’ own smartphones. Social Science Computer Review, 33, 235–253. doi:10.1177/0894439314525117
  • Hur, J. D., Koo, M., & Hofmann, W. (2015). When temptations come alive: How anthropomorphism undermines self-control. Journal of Consumer Research, 42, 340-358. doi:10.1093/jcr/ucv017
  • Kotabe, H. P., & Hofmann, W. (2015). On integrating the components of self-control. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 618–638. doi:10.1177/1745691615593382
  • Righetti, F., Balliet, D., Visserman, M., & Hofmann, W. (2015). Trust and the suppression of emotions during sacrifice in close relationships. Social Cognition, 33, 505–519. doi:10.1521/soco.2015.33.5.505
  • Hofmann, W., Adriaanse, M., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Dieting and the self-control of eating in everyday environments: An experience sampling study. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19, 523-539. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12053
  • Hofmann, W., & Dohle, S. (2014). Capturing eating behavior where the action takes place: A comment on McKee et al. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 48, 289-290. doi:10.1007/s12160-014-9625-8
  • Hofmann, W., Luhmann, M., Fisher, R. R., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Yes, but are they happy? Effects of trait self-control on affective well-being and life satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 92, 265-277. doi:10.1111/jopy.12050
  • Hofmann, W., Wisneski, D. C., Brandt, M. J., & Skitka, L. J. (2014). Morality in everyday life. Science, 345, 1340-1343. doi:10.1126/science.1251560
  • Kopetz, C., Hofmann, W., & Wiers, R. W. (2014). On the selection and balancing of multiple selfish goals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37, 147-148. doi:10.1017/S0140525X13002069 
  • Lopez, R. B., Hofmann, W., Wagner, D. D., Kelley, W. M., & Heatherton, T. F. (2014). Neural predictors of giving in to temptation in daily life. Psychological Science, 25, 1337-1344. doi:10.1177/0956797614531492
  • Hui, C. M., Finkel, E. J., Fitzsimons, G. M., Kumashiro, M., & Hofmann, W. (2014). The Manhattan effect: When relationship commitment fails to promote support for partners' interests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 546–570. doi:10.1037/a0035493
  • Hofmann, W., Kotabe, H., & Luhmann, M. (2013). The spoiled pleasure of giving in to temptation. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 733–742. doi:10.1007/s11031-013-9355-4
  • Van Dillen, L. F., Papies, E. K., & Hofmann, W. (2013). Turning a blind eye to temptation: How cognitive load can facilitate self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 427–443. doi:10.1037/a0031262
  • Hofmann, W., & Kotabe, H. (2012). A general model of preventive and interventive self?control. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6, 707–722. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00461.x
  • Hofmann, W., & Van Dillen, L. F. (2012). Desire: The new hot spot in self-control research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 317–322. doi:10.1177/0963721412453587
  • Hofmann, W., Baumeister, R. F., Förster, G., & Vohs, K. D. (2012). Everyday temptations: An experience sampling study of desire, conflict, and self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1318–1335. doi:10.1037/a0026545
  • Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 174–180. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006
  • Hofmann, W., & Fisher, R. R. (2012). How guilt and pride shape subsequent self-control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 682–690. doi:10.1177/1948550611435136
  • Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2012). Just a little bit longer: Viewing time of erotic material from a self-control perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 489–496. doi:10.1002/acp.2831
  • Luhmann, M., Hofmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2012). Subjective well-being and adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 592–615. doi:10.1037/a0025948
  • Hofmann, W., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). What people desire, feel conflicted about, and try to resist in everyday life. Psychological Science, 23, 582–588. doi:10.1177/0956797612437426
  • Friese, M., Hofmann, W., & Wiers, R. W. (2011). On taming horses and strengthening riders: Recent developments in research on interventions to improve self-control in health behaviors. Self and Identity, 10, 336–351. doi:10.1080/15298868.2010.536417
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2011). Working memory and self-regulation. In K. D. Vohs & R. F. Baumeister (Eds.), The handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (Vol. 2, pp. 204–226). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., Müller, J., & Strack, F. (2011). Zwei Seelen wohnen, ach, in meiner Brust: Psychologische und philosophische Erkenntnisse zum Konflikt zwischen Impuls und Selbstkontrolle [Two souls live in my breast. Psychological and philosophical considerations concerning the conflict between impulses and self-control]. Psychologische Rundschau, 62, 147–166. doi:10.1026/0033-3042/a000086
  • Hofmann, W., Koningsbruggen, G. M. van, Stroebe, W., Ramanathan, S., & Aarts, H. (2010). As pleasure unfolds: Hedonic responses to tempting food. Psychological Science, 21, 1863–1870. doi:10.1177/0956797610389186
  • Hofmann, W., & Wilson, T. D. (2010). Consciousness, introspection, and the adaptive unconscious. In B. Gawronski & B. K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory, and applications (pp. 197–215). New York: Guilford.
  • Nederkoorn, C., Houben, K., Hofmann, W., Roefs, A., & Jansen, A. (2010). Control yourself or just eat what you like? Weight gain over a year is predicted by an interactive effect of response inhibition and implicit preference for snack foods. Health Psychology, 29, 389–393. doi:10.1037/a0019921
  • Hofmann, W., Deutsch, R., Lancaster, K., & Banaji, M. R. (2010). Cooling the heat of temptation: Mental self-control and the automatic evaluation of tempting stimuli. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 17–25. doi:10.1002/ejsp.708
  • Hofmann, W., De Houwer, J., Perugini, M., Baeyens, F., & Crombez, G. (2010). Evaluative conditioning in humans: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 390–421. doi:10.1037/a0018916
  • Friese, M., Bargas-Avila, J., Hofmann, W., & Wiers, R. W. (2010). Here’s looking at you, Bud: Alcohol-related memory structures predict eye movements for social drinkers with low executive control. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 143–151. doi:10.1177/1948550609359945
  • Wiers, R. W., Houben, K., Roefs, A., De Jong, P., Hofmann, W., & Stacy, A. W. (2010). Implicit cognition in health psychology: Why common sense goes out of the window. In B. Gawronski & B. K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition (pp. 463–488). New York: Guilford Press.
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2010). The horse and the rider: Impulsive and self-regulatory influences on alcohol-related attention and consumption. Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 274a–274a.
  • Wiers, R. W., Beckers, L., Houben, K., & Hofmann, W. (2009). A short fuse after alcohol: Implicit power associations predict aggressiveness after alcohol consumption in young heavy drinkers with limited executive control. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 93, 300–305. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2009.02.003
  • Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2009). Control me or I will control you: Impulses, trait self-control, and the guidance of behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 795–805. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2009.07.004
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Strack, F. (2009). Impulse and self-control from a dual-systems perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 162–176. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01116.x
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Gschwendner, T. (2009). Men on the “pull”: Automatic approach-avoidance tendencies and sexual interest behavior. Social Psychology, 40, 73–78. doi:10.1027/1864-9335.40.2.73
  • Hofmann, W., Gschwendner, T., & Schmitt, M. (2009). The road to the unconscious self not taken: Discrepancies between self-and observer-inferences about implicit dispositions from nonverbal behavioural cues. European Journal of Personality, 23, 343–366. doi:10.1002/per.722
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Roefs, A. (2009). Three ways to resist temptation: The independent contributions of executive attention, inhibitory control, and affect regulation to the impulse control of eating behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 431–435. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.09.013
  • Baumert, A., Hofmann, W., & Blum, G. (2008). Laughing about Hitler? – Evaluation of the movie “My Fuehrer – The truly truest truth about Adolf Hitler.” Journal of Media Psychology, 20, 43–56. doi:10.1027/1864-1105.20.2.43
  • Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2008). What would you have as a last supper? Thoughts about death influence evaluation and consumption of food products. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1388–1394. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.06.003
  • Friese, M., Hofmann, W., & Schmitt, M. (2008). When and why do implicit measures predict behaviour? Empirical evidence for the moderating role of opportunity, motivation, and process reliance. European Review of Social Psychology, 19, 285–338. doi:10.1080/10463280802556958
  • Friese, M., Hofmann, W., & Wänke, M. (2008). When impulses take over: Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 397–419. doi:10.1348/014466607X241540
  • Gschwendner, T., Hofmann, W., & Schmitt, M. (2008). Convergent and predictive validity of implicit and explicit anxiety measures as a function of specificity similarity and content similarity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 24, 254–262. doi:10.1027/1015-5759.24.4.254
  • Gschwendner, T., Hofmann, W., & Schmitt, M. (2008). Differential stability: The effects of acute and chronic construct accessibility on the temporal stability of the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Individual Differences, 29, 70–79. doi:10.1027/1614-0001.29.2.70
  • Hofmann, W., Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2008). Free to buy? Explaining self-control and impulse in consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 18, 22–26. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.005
  • Hofmann, W., Gschwendner, T., Castelli, L., & Schmitt, M. (2008). Implicit and explicit attitudes and interracial interaction: the moderating role of situationally available control resources. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 69–87. doi:10.1177/1368430207084847
  • Hofmann, W., & Friese, M. (2008). Impulses got the better of me: Alcohol moderates the influence of implicit attitudes toward food cues on eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 420–427. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.117.2.420
  • Hofmann, W., Friese, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences on health behavior: A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review, 2, 111–137. doi:10.1080/17437190802617668
  • Hofmann, W., Rauch, W., & Gawronski, B. (2007). And deplete us not into temptation: Automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 497–504. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.004
  • Gawronski, B., Hofmann, W., & Wilbur, C. J. (2006). Are “implicit” attitudes unconscious? Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 485–499. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2005.11.007
  • Gschwendner, T., Hofmann, W., & Schmitt, M. (2006). Moderatoren der Konsistenz implizit und explizit erfasster Einstellungen und Persönlichkeitsmerkmale [Moderators of the consistency of implicitly and explicitly assessed attitudes and personality traits]. Psychologische Rundschau, 57, 13–33. doi:10.1026/0033-3042.57.1.13
  • Gschwendner, T., Hofmann, W., & Schmitt, M. (2006). Synergistic moderator effects of situation and person factors of awareness and adjustment on the consistency of implicit and explicit attitudes. Journal of Individual Differences, 27, 47–56. doi:10.1027/1614-0001.27.1.47
  • Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369–1385. doi:10.1177/0146167205275613
  • Hofmann, W., Baumert, A., & Schmitt, M. (2005). Heute haben wir Hitler im Kino gesehen: Evaluation der Wirkung des Films der Untergang auf Schüler und Schülerinnen der neunten und zehnten Klasse [Today we saw Hitler at the cinema: Evaluation of the effects of the film “Der Untergang” (downfall) on ninth and tenth grade students]. Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 17, 132–146. doi:10.1026/1617-6383.17.4.132
  • Hofmann, W., Gschwendner, T., & Schmitt, M. (2005). On implicit-explicit consistency: The moderating role of individual differences in awareness and adjustment. European Journal of Personality, 19, 25–49. doi:10.1002/per.537
  • Hofmann, W., Gschwendner, T., Nosek, B. A., & Schmitt, M. (2005). What moderates implicit-explicit consistency? European Review of Social Psychology, 16, 335–390. doi:10.1080/10463280500443228
  • Fiedler, K., Bluemke, M., Friese, M., & Hofmann, W. (2003). On the different uses of linguistic abstractness: From LIB to LEB and beyond. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 441–453. doi:10.1002/ejsp.158